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Dudo Commercially known as Perudo and sometimes called Peruvian Liar Dice. This game is said to have been taught to the Spanish conquistadors, by the Incas, in the 16th century. It is also the game featured in The Pirates Of The Carribean: Dead Man's Chest film. A game of guessing and bluff for any number of players who will each need five dice and ideally a throwing cup to conceal them. Play: Simultaneously, all the players roll the dice, keeping them covered so no one else can see what they have thrown. Each player takes a look at their dice. The first player then guesses how many, of all the players' dice, show a certain value and announces it. The next player announces their guess, which must be either a higher number of dice showing the same value, or the same or higher number of dice showing a greater value. For example, the first player announces that there are seven 2s. The next player must announce a call of at least eight 2s or seven 3s. Players declare their estimates in turn until someone decides that a guess is too improbable or just plain impossible and challenges it by saying 'Dudo!' ('Dudo' means 'I doubt it!' in Spanish). As soon as a challenge is made everyone reveals their dice. If the challenge is correct and there are less dice than called, then the player who made the call loses a die. If the challenge was wrong and there are an equal or greater number of dice called, then the challenger loses a die. This ends the round and the player who lost a die starts the next one. However, a player's estimate of how many dice of a certain value there are is complicated by the fact that 1s (Aces) are wild and represent any number. Once a challenge has been made all the dice showing the value declared and all the 1s are counted. So if the last call was seven 3s and a challenge is made revealing four 3s and three 1s the challenger loses. The first player may not call 1s but subsequent players may. Because 1s are wild, and the chances of a call of any other number winning are doubled, a player who calls 1s only has half the odds of being correct and so must reduce their call by half of the previous call of any other value. So if a call of seven 2s is made then the next call may be of four 1s (when halving an odd number of dice you must round up). 1s have no set value so a player may announce a call of 1s at any time even though this initially seems to be a call of a lower value. Once a player has announced a call of 1s the next player's call must be of either a greater number of 1s or greater than double the number of any other value. So if four 1s are called the next call must be of at least five 1s or nine of any other value. Once a player is reduced to a single die they are said to be palifico and a round with slightly different rules is played. The palafico player starts this round in which 1s are no longer wild and may start with a call of 1s if he wishes. Subsequent player's calls must be of a greater number of dice of the same value. So the value doesn't change during the round. For example if the palafico player calls five 4s the next player must call at least six 4s and the next at least seven 4s. Each player is only palafico once in a game. The palafico round is not played when the game is reduced to two players. Once a player has lost their last die he leaves the game and the player to the left starts the next round. The last player left with a die is the winner.


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